亚洲国产免费综合网

治理黑臭水体何处发力?

 

当前,我国污水处理率不断提高,但城市水体黑臭现象依然存在。 2015年4月16日出台的《水污染防治行动计划》(简称“水十条”)明确提出:

  • 到2020年,地级及以上城市建成区黑臭水体均控制在10%以内;

  • 到2030年城市黑臭水体得到消除。

  • 各省、市也均出台黑臭水体治理相关文件。

亚洲国产免费综合网   jinri,《shuigongyeshichang》zazhiyueqinglezhuanyerenshi,jiumuqianwoguochengshiheichoushuitizhilidexiangguanwentizhankaishenrujiaoliuyutantao。

 

1国内城市水体黑臭的现状及原因

  城市水体大面积受污染,引起水体富营养化,形成黑臭水体。

  zaiwoguochengshihuahegongyehuajinchengjiakuaideguochengzhong,youyushuiwurankongzhiyuzhilicuoshizhihou,huozhenengliyouxianyushuipingdixia,yixiechengshishuitiyouqishizhongxiaochengshishuiti,zhijiechengweigongye、nongyejishenghuofeishuidezhuyaopaifangtongdaohechangsuo,daozhichengshishuitidamianjishouwuran,yinqishuitifuyingyanghua,xingchengheichoushuiti。heliuheichouxianxiangzuizaochuxianzaishanghaisuzhouhe,suihounanjingdeqinhuaihe、suzhoudewaichenghe、wuhandehuangxiaoheheningbodeneihedeng,junchuxianbutongchengdudeheichouxianxiang。

  

  在微生物产生的种种异味中,现在最有代表性也对水质影响最大的是一些放线菌代谢产生的一类具有特殊结构的物质。它们是引起水体臭味的主因。

  当河水遭受严重有机污染时,微生物好氧分解使水体中耗氧速率大于复氧速率,溶解氧逐渐被消耗殆尽,造成水体缺氧。在缺氧水体中,有机污染物被厌氧分解,产生不同类型的黑臭类物质。铁锰无机离子被还原并与有机污染物络合,形成“黑”色的复合物。在微生物产生的种种异味中,现在最有代表性也对水质影响最大的是一些放线菌代谢产生的一类具有特殊结构的物质。这些微量有机物实际上是引起水体臭味的主因,因为它们的阈值很低,只要每升水中有0.002-0.02μg,就会让人闻到强烈的臭味,而且用传统的方法很难被去除。

 

2城市黑臭水体治理上存在的问题和困难

  从客观规律来讲城镇水体排污量相对较大,污染比较集中,很多城镇水体缺少径流量,没有生态流量,水质改善见效慢,而且治理城镇黑臭水体涉及规划、建设、市政等部门,工作内容涉及方方面面,所以治理起来相对较难。

   jinxienian,guoneiyixiedifang,rushanghai、shandong、jiangsu、guangdongdengshengshiyiluxukaizhanlechengshishuitihuanjingzonghezhengzhigongzuo。danzongtieryan,chenggonganlibuduo,jiaoxunquehenduo。zhuyaocunzaiyixiawenti:shouxianshixitongxingbuzu,gediwangwangbazonghezhengzhilijieweigeleigongchengcuoshihuozhexiangmude“dabao”、“yiguohui”。zhilicuoshiyushuihuanjingzhilianggaishanguanlianbumiqie,hushileshuitizhilidexitongxing。qicishizhilishouduanbijiaodanyi,youxiedifangjiangshuitizhilishiweizhengjigongcheng,aiyonghuan、zhuba、gaorenzaojingguandeng“sanbanfu”,xiangmujianshebushiyigaishanshuizhiweimubiao。haiyoubushaoxiangmucaiquhedaojiagai、jianshezhaba、“sanmianguang”dengguoduodeqiangganyudefeishengtaihuacuoshi。henduodifangdeheichoushuitizhihaohouyiduanshijianyoufandan,shuomingzheixiexingxianggongchengqishishidazheshengtaiwenmingdeqihao,gandezeshifeiziran、feishengtai,shenzhishipohuaishengtaixitongdeshi。lingwai,xiangmumeiyoujianshebiaozhun、dingeguifanhepeitaoguanlidezhidu,yeshidifangzaiheichoushuitizhilishicunzaidewenti。

 

3国外黑臭水体整治的工程技术选择

 

wanshandewushuijieliuyushoujixitong

chengshiwushuichulichangweishuishengtaihuachuli

chuqiyushuichuli

yinxingwuranyuanzhili

shengtaidian

shuitishengtaijinghua

shengtaibushui

 

4我国黑臭水体修复的主要工程治理技术路线

  城市河道的黑臭治理应遵循“外源减排、内源清淤、水质净化、清水补给、生态恢复”的技术路线。

  外源减排和内源清淤是基础与前提,水质净化是阶段性手段,水动力改善技术和生态恢复是长效保障措施。

1
 
外源阻断技术

  baokuochengshijiewunaguanhemianyuankongzhiliangzhongqingkuang。zhenduiquefawanshanwushuishoujixitongdeshuiti,tongguojianshehegaizaoshuitiyanandewushuiguandao,jiangwushuijieliunaruwushuishoujihechulixitong,congyuantoushangxuejianwuranwudezhijiepaifang。duishangwutiaojianjinxingjiewunaguandewushui,kezaiyuanweicaiyonggaoxiaoyijiqianghuawushuichulijishuhuogongyi,bimianwushuizhipaiduishuitidewuran。chengshimianyuanwurankongzhijishuzhuyaobaokuogezhongchengshidiyingxiangkaifa(ruhaimianchengshi)jishu、chuqiyushuikongzhijishuheshengtaihuanjishudeng。shuitizhoubianlajideqinglishimianyuanwurankongzhidezhongyaocuoshi。

2
 
内源控制技术

亚洲国产免费综合网   jiqingyushujunjishu,tongchangyouliangzhong:yizhongshichouganhu/heshuihouqingyu;lingyizhongshiyongwanichuanzhijiecongshuizhongqingchuyuni。houzhedeyingyongfanweijiaoguang。qingyushujunnengxiangduikuaisudigaishanshuizhi,danqingyuguochengyinraodongyidaozhiwuranwudaliangjinrushuiti,yingxiangdaoshuitishengtaixitongdewending,juyouyidingdeshengtaifengxian。

 
水质净化技术

亚洲国产免费综合网   chengshiheichoushuitideshuizhijinghuajishuzhuyaobaokuo:rengongpuqichongyang、xuningchendianjishu、rengongshidijishu、shengtaifudao、wendingtangdeng。deguosaerhe、yingguotaiwushihe、aodaliyatianehe、zhongguodesuzhouhedengzhilizhongdoucaiyonglepuqizengyangdefangfa。

 
水动力改善技术

亚洲国产免费综合网   duiyunawufuhegao、shuidonglibuzu、huanjingrongliangdidechengshiheichoushuitizhili,gaijishuxiaoguomingxian。dandiaoyongqingjieshuilaigaishanheshuishuizhiyingjinliangcaiyongfeichangguishuiyuan,tongshizaidiaoshuideguochengzhongyaofangzhiyinruxindewuranyuan。

 
生态恢复技术

  baokuochengshihedaofuyingyanghuadekongzhi(guanjianzaiyulindekongzhi)jishu、zaoleishengzhangrengongkongzhijishu,yijishuishengtaixiufujishu。

 

5城市黑臭水体的治理技术

  zhenduichengshiheichoushuitidezhilijishuzhuyaobaokuo:wulixingjishu、shengwuxiufujishu、rengongfuyangjishu。

物理型技术亚洲国产免费综合网主要包括截污、调水、清淤等水利工程。这三种物理型技术都在国内外得到了广泛的应用,并发挥了良好的作用。但是,三种技术都受相关条件的限制,从而影响治污效果。如“截污”需要具备完善的污水管网和污水处理厂,“调水”需要有充沛的水资源,“清淤”需要实现外来污染源的有效控制避免后续淤积。

  生物修复技术亚洲国产免费综合网是利用特定的生物(包括微生物:土著或外源微生物以及植物等)在一定的条件下对被污染水体进行修复。但微生物也不能够降解所有的污染物,将生物修复技术应用于黑臭水体治理时,必须与其他环境工程技术如截污、清淤等结合同步进行,否则会由于外源污染物的不断注人,底泥污染物的不断释放影响生物修复的效果,甚至会导致功亏一篑。

  目前,在我国景观水体修复中应用最广泛和有效的是人工复氧技术,大量实践证明其是一种有效的工程措施。主要方式包括水力循环曝气、空气曝气、纯氧曝气、投加氧化剂等。

  rongjieyangzaiheshuizijingguochengzhongqizhefeichangzhongyaodezuoyong,ruguodankaotianranpuqi,heshuidezijingguochengjiangfeichanghuanman。guanyurengongpuqifuyangjishudeyanjiu,guowaidaduojizhongzai19shijiqibashiniandai,guoneijinnianlaiyekaizhanledaliangdeyanjiu。muqiangaijishuyiquyuchengshu,xindeyanjiuzhuyaojizhongzaiyuanyoushebeidegaijin、jutifangshideyouhuahuoyuxinjishudejiehedengfangmian。suiranhedaopuqizaiguowaiyijingkaizhanle40duonian,danzaiwoguo,chulezaibeijing、zhongqingheshanghaidengdidexiaohedaozhilizhongshiyongguohedaopuqijishu,shangweizaihedaodaguimozonghezhilizhongyingyongguo。

 

6治理黑臭水体,要采取以下管理对策

  建立以溶解氧为核心指标的评价体系;先截污后修复,以综合手段治理;改善生态条件,让水流动起来;构建岸边绿化带,增强水体自净能力。

1
 
建立以溶解氧为核心指标的评价体系

  heichoushuitizhilideguanjianshigaishanshuitiderongjieyangzhuangtai,shishuitiyoudiyang/yanyangzhuangtaihuifudaozhengchangdehaoyangzhuangtai。guojiazhongdashuizhuanxiangxiangguanyanjiuchengguo,jianyiyirongjieyangweihexin,jianlibaokuochouyuzhi、toumingdu、sedudeng4xiangzhibiaoheichoushuitipingjiatixi。

2
 
先截污后修复,综合手段治理黑臭水体

  zailiuyuchidushangcaiquwuranyuanzhilidengjiewucuoshi,nenggoudafuduxuejianruhewuranfuhe,shixiaochuheichouwentideshouyaojucuo。tongshijiangheandaixiufu、rengongchongyangdenghedaoneigongchengcuoshizuoweiwuranfuhexuejiandezhongyaobuchongshouduan,jinyibujiangdiwuranshuiping。zaiheliushuizhidedaoyouxiaogaishandejichushang,tongguoshuishengshengwudehuifu,zhubushixianheliushengtaixiufu,dadaoxiaochuheichoudemude。

 
改善生态条件,让水流动起来

  woguodaduoshuchengzhenheliushuishenwei1-3m,zaiyibantiaojianxia,daqiyangkeyichuantoushangfushuitidaodaheliuchenjiwubiaoceng。raner,youyupaiwujiaju,shuitibiaomianxingchengqueyangyuebianceng。yibanqingkuangxia,weichiheliushuitiliusu0.4-1.0m3/s,jiukeyidaporongyangyuebiancengxingchengdelihuatiaojian,shideshuitujiemiancengderongyangweichizai3mg/lyishang,keyiyouxiaokongzhishuitidizhiwuran。liushuibufu,shihuanjianshenzhijibenxiaochuheliuheichoudeguanjianyinsu。

 
构建岸边绿化带,增强水体自净能力

亚洲国产免费综合网   chediqingchuyanhelaji,yangekongzhiwuranyuanzhipai,duianbiandaijinxinglvhuagaizao,huifuqiziranzhuangtai。

 
摸清城市黑臭水体现状,一河一策开展工作

亚洲国产免费综合网   gedifangzhengfuyingshouxianzuohaopaicha,moqingchengshiheichoushuitidexianzhuang,tichuyouzhenduixingdezhilifangan,ranhouyiheyicediquzuoyixiegongzuo,yindaolaobaixingcanyudaohuanjingzhilizhong,jianliyilaobaixingganguanweizhongdiandekaohepingpantixi。zaijishulujingshang,yinggaizunxunjiewuyouxian、zhiliweiben、kaiyuanjieliu、shengtaihuifu、xitongzhilideyuanze。jiewushigenben;baguanwangjianshehao,zuohaowushuichuli,shiguanjian;zaizuohaokaiyuanjieliuyijijiaqiangguanlidengfangmiandegongzuo。

  特别要指出的是,城镇黑臭水体的治理涉及到治和管两方面,治好以后管理不到位也会反弹。所以要强力推进长效管理机制,坚持工程建设与长效管理两手抓。

 
建立黑臭水体修复的系统设计方案

亚洲国产免费综合网   heichoushuitidexiaochushiyigexitonggongcheng,xuyaoduigedishuitiheichoudeyuanyinjinxingpaicha,genjudiyuchayi、wuranxianzhuang,tongguoheichoushuitiwuranchengyinfenxiheouhejishuyanjiu,congquanmiangaishanshuihuanjingzhiliang、huifushuishengtaijiankanganquanchufa,anzhaorenshuihexieheshuijiankangxunhuandezhililinian,congwuranwuzhili、heliushuiti、huanhudirushou,goujianheichoushuitixiufudejishutixi,bingtixianwuzhixiangrongxing、jiegouduoyangxing、shengtaijingji、hexiekaifangxingdeyuanze,jianliheichoushuitixiufudexitongshejifangan。

 

亚洲国产免费综合网   jutieryan,heichoushuitixiufudejishutixigoujianzhuyaobaokuosangefangmian:

1污染控制与治理技术

  yangekongzhiruhewuranwushiqixiufudeyigezhongyaoqianti,congwuranwuchanshengyuantoukongzhiwuranwuchansheng,bingtongguojiewuduichanshengdianyuan、mianyuanyijiyinxingwuranyuanjinxingzonghezhili

2水体修复技术

亚洲国产免费综合网   zai“jiewu、kongwu”dejichushang,duiwuranyanzhongdeshuititongguojinyibushishishuizhigaishanjishuheshengjingxiufujishu,zhubuhuifushuitideziwodiaojie、ziwohuifudegongneng,jiasugaishanheliushuitishuizhi

3流域河道治理技术

  conghuifuhedaoliantongxing、shentouxing、weichishengjingxushuiliang、diaoxuyuhongrushou,tongguoshishihedaoshengtaixiufujishu、yuhongdiaoxujishuyijijidixiufujishu,zhubuhuifushuitidefanghongpailaoheshengtaixitongfuwugongneng。

(本文摘录自“水工业市场杂志”)